YES - it is possible for two foreigners who got married overseas to get a divorce in Taiwan. I just recently met a Canadian girl who divorced her Australian husband in Taiwan. They were married in Australia. Her ex-husband left her for his Taiwanese co-teacher (ouch!). Anyway, to get divorced they needed to get their marriage licence officially translated into Chinese. They didn't need a household registration but did need their ARCs. It was an uncontested divorce and they didn't even need to turn up for court. Their lawyer arranged everything and the judge signed it. It was pretty easy apparently. She got her divorce certificate translated into English.
Regarding having your divorce "recognized" - the only time you need your divorce recognized is when you want to get married again to prove you are single ie: you need to produce your divorce certificate when you're applying for another marriage licence. That's it.
With few exceptions, married couples can get divorced in any country in the world regardless of their nationality and where they got married - as long as they fulfill the legal requirements of that country. In New Zealand, you need to be legally separated for two years before you can get a divorce, in the Bahamas you can get a divorce in a week! If two Americans got married in New Zealand, they can go to the Bahamas to get a divorce. A legal divorce certificate from any country will render you divorced wherever you go.