[quote="archylgp"You're correct -- Mandarin ji, qi, xi developed from ki, k'i, hi. This kind of change is called "palatalization". Palatalization didn't occur in Cantonese, thus the k - j correspondences in cognate sets.[/quote] The same phenomenon happened in Latin during the time of the Roman Empire (with g and k, while h fell silent), and is ultimately the reason why English has both "hard" and "soft" c and g sounds.
Today at work I overheard two teachers conversation (in Chinese) and one inserted what sounded like "pow po" into her sentence. From her context I knew she was talking about PowerPoint. I'm hearing more and more of "bu-sz" for bus, "OK de", etc.
"When I see an adult on a bicycle, I do not despair for the future of the human race [except in Taiwan]. ~paraphrased from H.G. Wells
Ketchup was actually taken out of the Malay language of the 16th century where it meant a kind of soup or sauce with a tomato base and became ketchup as we know it in English today. Not sure of all the facts. I did a course in my masters where we had to do a presentation and I chose loan words out of Asian languages. It was very interesting.
Yup, "ketchup" comes from Malay, but the Malay word most certainly comes from a dialect of Chinese. Whether it's 茄汁 (tomato sauce) or 鮭汁 (fish sauce) or something else is a matter of debate, as is which dialect of Chinese it originates from.