You can get all the information you need at the National Immigration Agency (NIA) of Taiwan here:http://www.immigration.gov.tw/welcome.htm
If your parents are "Natural Born" ROC citizens, then you can get your Taiwan passport issued outside of Taiwan but it will not have the Taiwan National ID number.
After getting your Taiwan passport, for which you are now a Taiwan "National" but not a "Citizen", you can apply for a Taiwan Resident Permit if you have a direct relative (parents, brothers, or sisters), who has a valid Taiwan National ID and has Taiwan household registration, and who can petition for you.
After that, you should stay in Taiwan for one year straight and you can then apply for your Taiwan National ID and Taiwan household registration.
NOTE: The above applies only to Overseas Chinese whose parents hold valid ROC Passports and ROC uses the Jus Sanguinis policy for its nationality law.